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    classification of human parasite

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    الوفاء طبعى

    عدد المساهمات : 8
    تاريخ التسجيل : 27/08/2011

    classification of human parasite

    مُساهمة  الوفاء طبعى في الإثنين سبتمبر 19, 2011 6:10 am

    theClassification systems have been developed to indicate#
    relationship among the various species of parasites, and these
    schemes have been based primarily on life cycles and morphology
    of the organism. Closely related species are placed in
    the same genus, related genera in the same family, related
    families in the same order, related orders in the same class, and
    related classes in the same phylum, one of the major categories
    in the animal kingdom. Organisms in each category will have
    characteristics in common.
    Parasites of humans are classified in six major divisions.
    These include the Protozoa (amebae, flagellates, ciliates, sporozoans,
    coccidia, microsporidia), the Nematoda or roundworms,
    the Platyhelminthes or flatworms (cestodes, trematodes), the
    Pentastomids or tongue worms (may be grouped with the
    arthropods), the Acanthocephala or thorny-headed worms, and
    the Arthropoda (e.g., insects, spiders, mites, ticks). Although
    these categories appear to be clearly defined, there may be
    confusion in attempting to classify parasites,

    often due to the
    lack of known specimens or the presence of strains or races of
    the same species with slightly different characteristics.
    Reproductive mechanisms have been used as a basis for
    determining definitions of species, but there are many exceptions
    within parasite groups. Another difficulty in recognition
    of species is the ability and tendency of the organisms to alter
    their morphological forms according to age, host, or nutrition,
    which may result in different names for the same organism. In
    many cases, there may be alternation of parasitic and freeliving
    phases in the life cycle. These organisms may be very
    different and difficult to recognize as belonging to the same
    species. However, newer molecular methods of grouping organisms
    have often confirmed taxonomic conclusions reached
    hundreds of years before by experienced taxonomists. As studies
    continue in parasitic genetics, immunology, and biochemistry,
    the species designation will be defined more clearly by
    use of highly sophisticated molecular techniques.
    No attempt has been made to include every possible organism,
    but only those considered to be clinically relevant in the
    context of human parasitology. Not every organism listed below
    is a human pathogen. Also, although new classification
    names are proposed frequently and there may be some disagreement
    among scientists, this list is designed to provide
    nomenclature that is currently in use
    .

    Protozoa


    Amebae (Intestinal)
    Entamoeba histolytica
    Entamoeba dispar*
    Entamoeba hartmanni
    Entamoeba coli
    Entamoeba polecki
    Endolimax nana
    Iodamoeba bu¨tschlii
    Blastocystis hominis
    Flagellates (Intestinal)
    Giardia lamblia†
    Chilomastix mesnili
    Dientamoeba fragilis
    Trichomonas hominis
    Enteromonas hominis
    Retortamonas intestinalis



    Ciliates (Intestinal


    Balantidium coli



    Coccidia, Microsporidia (Intestinal

    Coccidia

    Cryptosporidium parvum
    Cyclospora cayetanensis
    Isospora belli
    Sarcocystis hominis
    Sarcocystis suihominis
    Microsporidia
    Enterocytozoon bieneusi
    Encephalitozoon intestinalis



    Sporozoa, Flagellates (Blood, Tissue)




    Sporozoa (Malaria and Babesiosis)
    Plasmodium vivax
    Plasmodium ovale
    Plasmodium malariae
    Plasmodium falciparum
    Babesia



    Flagellates (Leishmaniae, Trypanosomes)


    Leishmania tropica ]complex

    Leishmania mexicana
    complex

    Leishmania braziliensis
    complex

    Leishmania donovani
    [complex


    Leishmania peruviana
    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
    Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
    Trypanosoma cruzi
    Trypanosoma rangeli


    ]Amebae, Flagellates (Other Body Sites)


    Amebae


    Naegleria fowleri
    Acanthamoeba
    species

    Entamoeba gingivalis
    Balamuthia mandrillaris
    Leptomyxid ameba
    </I>


    </FONT></FONT>Flagellates


    Trichomonas vaginalis
    Trichomonas tenax

    </I>[size=24]Coccidia, Sporozoa, Microsporidia (Other Body Sites]


    Coccidia

    Toxoplasma gondii
    Sarcocystis “lindemanni”
    Sporozoa
    Pneumocystis carinii
    Microsporidia

    Nosema connori
    Vittaforma corneae
    Pleistophora
    Trachipleistophora hominis
    Brachiola
    Encephalitozoon hellum
    Encephalitozoon cuniculi
    Encephalitozoon intestinalis
    Encephalitozoon bieneusi

    “Microsporidium”

    Enterocytozoon
    bieneusi



    Nematodes (Roundworms

    Intestinal

    Ascaris lumbricoides
    Enterobius vermicularis
    Ancylostoma duodenale
    Necator americanus
    Strongyloides stercoralis
    Trichostrongylus
    species
    Trichuris trichiura
    Capillaria philippinensis



    Tissue


    Trichinella spiralis
    Visceral larva migrans (Toxocara canis
    or Toxocara cati




    Ocular larva migrans (Toxocara canis orToxocara cati


    Cutaneous larva migrans (Ancylostoma braziliense
    or
    ]
    Ancylostoma caninum


    Dracunculus medinensis
    Angiostrongylus cantonensis
    Angiostrongylus costaricensis
    Gnathostoma spinigerum
    Anisakis
    species (larvae from saltwater fish)

    Phocanema
    species (larvae from saltwater fish)

    Contracaecum
    species (larvae from saltwater fish)

    Eustrongylides
    species

    Capillaria hepatica
    Thelazia

    Gnathostom
    a


    Blood and Tissues (Filarial Worms



    Wuchereria bancrofti
    Brugia malayi
    Brugia timori
    Loa loa
    Onchocerca volvulus
    Mansonella ozzardi
    Mansonella streptocerca
    Mansonella perstans
    Dirofilaria immitis
    (usually lung lesion; in dogs, heartworm)

    Dirofilaria
    species (may be found in subcutaneous nodules
    </I>


    </FONT></FONT>Cestodes (Tapeworms]

    Intestinal



    Diphyllobothrium latum
    Dipylidium caninum
    Hymenolepis nana
    Hymenolepis diminuta
    Taenia solium
    Taenia saginata


    [size=24]Tissue (Larval Forms)

    Taenia solium
    Echinococcus granulosus
    Echinococcus multilocularis
    Taenia multiceps
    formerly Multiceps multiceps




    Taenia serialis
    Spirometra mansonoides
    Spirometra mansoni
    Diphyllobothrium


    [size=24]Trematodes (Flukes)[


    Intestinal



    Fasciolopsis buski
    Echinostoma ilocanum
    Heterophyes heterophyes
    Metagonimus yokogawai
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    المستر
    Admin

    عدد المساهمات : 30
    تاريخ التسجيل : 05/07/2010

    رد: classification of human parasite

    مُساهمة  المستر في الجمعة أكتوبر 21, 2011 8:41 am



    يديك العافيه ماقصرتي مجهود مقدر

    alaa balal

    عدد المساهمات : 5
    تاريخ التسجيل : 18/08/2010
    العمر : 26

    رد: classification of human parasite

    مُساهمة  alaa balal في الجمعة أكتوبر 21, 2011 4:46 pm

    موضوع مهم جدا شكراعلي المعلومات
    avatar
    الوفاء طبعى

    عدد المساهمات : 8
    تاريخ التسجيل : 27/08/2011

    رد: classification of human parasite

    مُساهمة  الوفاء طبعى في الأربعاء أكتوبر 26, 2011 8:32 am

    الله يعافيكم المستــــــــــر .....و alaa>>>> ويلا ايدى مع ايديكم المنتدى محتاج كثير

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الأحد سبتمبر 24, 2017 10:57 am